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The pedagogical model termed “flipped classrooms” refers to a scenario where homework and lectures are reversed. Typically, students come to class to hear lectures and then go home and complete the application of that lecture (e.g., homework).  In flipped classrooms, students watch a short video before coming to class, and when students come to class, they apply the lessons taught in the short video. This approach allows instructors to use time in class to build skills and for collaboration.

Educators are adopting this model anytime students watch or listen to lectures before coming to class and then do workshops in class. In one approach, teachers may actually set up a series of videos with intermittent quizzes to test knowledge acquisition. A series of videos may help to ensure that students have a certain level of knowledge before coming to class. While potentially helpful in all classes, this approach seems to have a great deal of potential for career and technical classes (CTE).

Career and technical instructors have struggled with e-learning because CTE classes demand that students spend time in workshops and laboratories to ensure they are applying theoretical knowledge. A hybrid approach seems to work well in CTE classes. Further, the flipped classroom is a technique that may help students be efficient and teachers be more effective.

In the traditional classroom, students often focus on transcribing lectures rather than understanding what is being said. A pre-class video format allows students to view the lecture material as many times as they need in order understand the material. Students that need extra time to understand material (i.e., accessibility issues) may find this approach very helpful. In addition, teachers may be able to detect errors more efficiently in this model because more class time is spent on the application of material. Collaboration and informal learning may also be facilitated in flipped classrooms.

The flipped model does require more preparatory work for both the teacher and student. Teachers must be very organized and sequential in this approach. Students must spend time viewing and reflecting on the videos before class. However, students may get frustrated if their technology equipment is slow or incapable of loading the videos (e.g., dial-up internet).

Moving the videos used in flipped classrooms to mobile devices makes this model even more attractive. Students could access lectures anytime, anywhere and just in time for training. Business and industry may actually begin to think about adopting this model for training incumbent workers. Ultimately, this model places more responsibility on students to learn material before class and affords them the opportunity to reflect on and apply this information on their own. Flipped classrooms allow students to master material rather than just being exposed to knowledge.

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010a, January). 7 things you should know about flipped classrooms. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf

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This table of contents chronicles the reflections on various projects and assignments of IT 860, Emerging Technology in Instructional Technology.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.    Introduction to Blogfolio

II.  Reflection on Assignments

III. Reflection on Readings

IV.  Overall Reflection on IT 860

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Web 2.0 is now a technological juggernaut, and these technologies are revolutionizing the way people communicate, collaborate and accomplish basic tasks. The focus of IT 860, Emerging Technologies in Instructional Technology, was to explore the latest and greatest Web 2.0 tools that show promise in education. Dr. Yuen exposed each student to the theoretical basis for each Web 2.0 tool through his book, “Collective Intelligence and E-Learning 2.0: Implications of Web-Based Communities and Networking.” In addition, students were required to use each Web 2.0 tool that was discussed in order to gain knowledge through experiential learning.

The first generation of the Web was developed primarily by experts and aimed at merely sharing knowledge. Web 2.0 differs in that these tools are created and developed by a variety of users with the intent of collaboration and interactivity. This focus on collaboration and interactivity has facilitated a sweeping embrace of social media. For example, if Facebook was a country, then it would be the third largest in the world behind China and India.

The Web 2.0 applications covered in IT 860 can be divided into three categories: tools that connect people, tools that share knowledge and tools that connect people and share knowledge in virtual environments. A large portion of the readings focused on issues involved with connecting people, while the bulk of the Web 2.0 tools that were covered focused on the sharing of knowledge. It should be noted that while I discuss these ideas separately, the whole point of Web 2.0 is to provide environments that both connect people and share knowledge.

Tools that Connect People

The premise of collective intelligence is founded on the power of tools that connect people. A series of readings helped to shed light on the philosophical basis for the use of these connecting Web 2.0 technologies in education. A new paradigm in learning theories was introduced in 2004 with the birth of connectivism, which stems from the traditions of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Our first reading was on connectivism and described the power of collective intelligence. Connectivists hold that learning takes place as networks of individuals share knowledge, and one powerful Web 2.0 tool covered that represents the power of human connection is Twitter.  For example, Twitter boasts 50 million Tweets per day; that is a lot of connecting!

As might be expected, this level of connectivity requires a good organizational infrastructure and can lead to a great number of legal concerns in education. Therefore, our second reading addressed the obstacles to implementing Web 2.0 in educational institutions. Further, educators need to consider the human and social issues involved with the implementation of Web 2.0 in the classroom, which was our third reading.

Synchronous Online Learning Environments (SOLE) represent an excellent example of synchronous online learning that is offered in an ethical and effective way. In SOLE, students have a chance to interact with peers and the teacher in a similar way to a traditional classroom, and multiple channels of media simultaneously connecting with learners enhance this interaction.

Tools that Share Knowledge

The power of Web 2.0 to share knowledge is robust; in fact, the number of tools is overwhelming. Dr. Yuen did an excellent job of weeding through the volumes of applications available and introducing students to the best of these tools. A reading that described the potential of Web-based video (e.g., YouTube) began this quest.

Following this reading, students dove into a myriad of Web 2.0 tools aimed at sharing knowledge. Social bookmarking (Diigo) is a Web 2.0 technology that allows users to bookmark Web sites and place tags on those bookmarks using keywords. Social publishing sites (Scribd) allow users to share and find written documents on the Internet or mobile devices, such as Word, PowerPoint or PDF. Screencasting (Jing or ScreenToaser) occurs when individuals capture a video of what happens on a computer screen over a span of time, and audio (e.g., narrative) is usually part of a screencast as well. File Sharing (Drop.io) is a powerful trend in Web 2.0 that facilitates collaboration, and users can create a “drop” by uploading an image, audio, video, document or other digital content. VoiceThread is a media aggregator that permits users to upload media to a website, and this tool also facilitates collaboration and feedback on such media.

Connecting and Sharing in Virtual Worlds

Virtual worlds find their ancestry in video games. Therefore, our first reading on virtual worlds actually focused on a model of Game-Based Learning (VISOLE). Learning through games is gaining more attention from several educators. Perhaps an even more promising environment for learning is seen in virtual worlds. Our final reading focused on taking a Pedagogical Odyssey in Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds (The SECOND LIFE Model). As a point of application, each student had an opportunity to make a presentation at a conference in Second Life.

Summative Thoughts

All of these tools described above promoted the sharing of knowledge. However, it would be misleading if I failed to highlight the intrinsic ability of each of these tools to also connect learners. A symbiotic relationship exists between connecting people and sharing knowledge in Web 2.0.

Dr. Yuen provided an incredible environment for learning these emerging tools. In fact, he taught the class through a platform (Mixxt) that closely resembled a social networking site (SNS) rather than through learning management software (LMS). Naturally, this approach led to more connectivity among students and facilitated the sharing of knowledge among the group.

This class has been an incredible journey of learning. I now feel confident to use Web 2.0 tools and design instruction around them appropriately.

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Virtual worlds offer an exciting new outlet for delivering content to learners. Second Life is one the best known and largest of several virtual worlds that are designed to attract crowds, including educators. Second Life is arguably the best virtual world in terms of collaboration, education, community and innovation.

How big is Second Life?

There are over 1 million residents in Second Life that regularly go “inworld” (i.e., log in and activate an avatar). In addition, there are over 1,400 organizations in Second Life ranging from colleges to mainstream corporations to government agencies. Many of these organizations own property including the U.S. military. Second Life contains around 500,000 acres of virtual real estate that can be purchased or rented. In 2009, the transactions in Second Life garnered over an astounding $500 million; that is actual U.S. currency. Second Life allows real-life individuals to have full-time jobs within this virtual world.

In some ways, this movement mirrors the growth of the Internet. Second Life is often used as a test bed for corporations such as Sony, Nissan and Sun Microsystems, among others. In the 1990s, the Internet was largely a research and educational network, but it has quickly become a commercial juggernaut.

What do people do in Second Life?

“Residents” of Second Life can sign up for free, and they simply do life together. They make friends, play sports, watch movies, run businesses and construct buildings. Residents can walk, run and fly, and they can dress in any body style they wish. In fact, users can change from a hip-hop male to a glamorous female to an animal all in the same session. In other words, they can be anyone or anything they wish to be, and they can do almost anything they wish to do.

Opportunities for Learning in Second Life: A Case Study

Because Second Life allows users to be anyone and do anything, opportunities for rich learning experiences abound in Second Life; they are virtually infinite. One such opportunity came as an assignment in IT 780. We were asked to create a presentation on a Web 2.0 topic and present this topic in the context of a Second Life Symposium.

Second Life Alcove

The symposium took place on The University of Southern Mississippi’s Second Life island: http://maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/GoldenEagle1/124/122/24. Each student prepared a short presentation that was displayed on a giant display alcove (pictured above).

Second Life PodiumThe presentations included several items. A podium in the front of the alcove displayed a “real-world” picture of the presenter, and if viewers clicked on this image, then a short biography of the presenter appeared. The front podium also held a title slide for the presentation. If viewers clicked this image, then they could see a short abstract of the presentation (presented below). Beside the front podium a “comments” box was placed so that viewers and peers could leave feedback on each presentation.

Second Life HandoutAnother feature of each presentation was a handout. The handouts allowed each passer-by to take a summative artifact of each presentation. Viewers could obtain a handout by clicking on the handout poster, which was placed on an easel beside each presentation, as illustrated.

The Presentation: eyePlorer

Obviously, the main feature of each presentation was contained on the five posters placed on the alcove module. I chose to do a presentation on eyePlorer. EyePlorer is a free Web 2.0 application that allows learners to “explore and process knowledge.”  Learners begin by typing in a word or phrase to research. EyePlorer gathers information from the Web and arranges it into a color wheel of concepts.  If users hover over each concept on the color wheel, then they get a brief description about that item. In addition, each term is cross-referenced with associative concepts.

The premise of eyePlorer is to enhance the way “users interact with knowledge and information online.”  Discovering information is accomplished in an interactive, visual and innovative manner. This application is ideal for brainstorming and finding associative ideas. An interactive notebook is provided to drag and drop facts, which allows users to find and collate references. The process of searching for topics and collecting notes helps learners prepare to write and promotes digital literacy. My presentation can be viewed below.

Rewarding Experience

The process of creating this presentation for Second Life was rich and rewarding. As might be expected, I learned a great deal about Second Life simply as a result of having to present in the context of Second Life. This required that I learn how to communicate, travel, change clothes and the list could continue.

Interestingly, I was learning on two levels simultaneously. I was doing the research on eyePlorer and learning about that Web 2.0 technology, and at the same time, I was learning about Second Life. This experience was almost like “digital dual-coding.” I haven’t heard that term before, but I think the experience is accurately described by that phrase.

A Sidebar Takeaway

As a side note, I have a great story that I will remember from this project. Our instructor told us to ensure that we had all documents in place well ahead of time and that we had a secure connection for the presentation. All of the documents were in place well ahead of time, so that was no issue. In considering a secure Internet connection, I could think of no better place than my workplace, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College (MGCCC). After all, we have a network that flows straight from our state’s capital, Jackson, on a pretty beefy infrastructure. I spent the morning of the presentation double-checking to make sure Second Life worked from my desk, and I was ready to go. The presentation started at 3:00, and around 2:55 (no kidding), MGCCC’s entire network crashed. They initially thought it was a server problem, but we came to find out that AT&T actually cut into a major fiber. I wound up having to drive to my house and arrived at the presentation 30 minutes late. All of this to say, that I was reminded of a valuable lesson: “The best made plans of mice and men often go awry.”

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VoiceThread is a media aggregator that permits users to upload media to a website, and this tool also facilitates collaboration and feedback on such media. This free Web 2.0 tool has several unique strengths. Users can easily add a voice narrative on top of an uploaded media, and this media can be a video, photos, slide presentation or document. In response, viewers can add feedback to the uploaded media in the form of video, audio or text. The power of aggregation brings all of these elements together, so that the resulting page contains a Flash-based animation with the original media and related comments. Another strength of VoiceThread is that it is user-friendly, especially in posting comments.

Making a VoiceThread

Users need to sign up for a free account in order to start a project. Creating a VoiceThread begins by uploading media. Fortunately, VoiceThread allows subscribers to upload content from a variety of sources. You can upload from a local computer, URL, webcam or media source (Facebook, Flickr, New York Public Library and other VoiceThreads).

After the media artifact is uploaded, users have the option to comment on each slide. Comments can be made by a keyboard (text), audio file upload (audio), phone (audio), microphone (audio) or webcam (video). Each speaker (i.e., commenter) is identified by a small image that is interactive. In other words, a user can click each speaker’s image to retrieve his or her comment. Creators and commentators also have an option to doodle (i.e., lines, arrows, etc…) on the media as part of their comment.

Finally, VoiceThreads can be shared in a variety of ways: email, embedded in a Web page or through a URL link. Under the “Publishing Options,” creators can control how each VoiceThread is shared. You can make it closed to a group of friends or open to the public. You can allow anyone to comment or restrict commenting. You can also allow the VoiceThread to be searchable in search engines by clicking “Show on Browse Page.”

How can this tool be used in education?

VoiceThread allows students to post an artifact. The teachers and peers can then comment on this artifact. Students could also collaborate on projects in order to produce group presentations or oral histories. In addition, VoiceThreads could be used for digital storytelling and for communication. For teachers, this tool seems ideal for starting discussions. For example, a teacher could post an image or video and then ask the class to comment on the respective media.

Are there any disadvantages to VoiceThread?

VoiceThread might pose an accessibility problem for those students with low bandwidth. In addition, viewing the application on a mobile phone can be quirky because it employs Flash to deliver content. Finally, teachers will have to take a creative approach to assessment because this is a nontraditional tool.

Future trends

In essence, VoiceThread makes sharing visual media easy and accessible, much like tools such as SlideShare. Because VoiceThreads are so easy to make and post comments, users might embrace this technology more quickly than complex technologies. VoiceThread comes across as professional. The ease of use and high quality of VoiceThread makes it an ideal tool for collaboration and interactive presentations. Perhaps the greatest potential of VoiceThread is that it allows users to convey their own thoughts through media and contribute to other VoiceThreads.

You can view a recent VoiceThread that I made by clicking the image below. It is a presentation on “The Value of a Network” from the perspective of constructivism. Feel free to leave a comment!

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What is a Screencast?

One of the most efficient ways to explain a computer process or software is through screencasting. The term “screencast” refers to a scenario when the actions on a user’s computer screen are captured. Typically, a screenshot describes a static picture of a computer screen. Similarly, a screencast is a video that captures what happens on a computer screen over a span of time, and audio is usually part of a screencast as well. The audio can take the form of a narrative voiceover from the presenter, background audio or sound from the application being demonstrated.

Screencasts are usually viewed as a stream over the Internet and can be created in a variety of formats. Screencasts provide a video of what is being discussed, and this medium helps to make online content more personal. The distribution of screencasts is easily accomplished through Web pages, email, IM and blogs.

Screencasting in Education

E-learning and distance education has quickly embraced screencasting. Screencasts offer several advantages for e-learning. First, faculty members can present learning resources to students that can be accessed anytime from any location that has access to the Web. Second, students can view screencasts at their own pace, which facilitates self-directed learning. Third, this technology helps promote a sense of engagement between students and teachers.

Screencasts can also help enhance evaluations of student work. Teachers can use a screencast to describe why certain errors are being marked and give suggestions. Faculty members can also use this technology for remediation. For example, if several math students had an issue on a specific problem, then the teacher could demonstrate how to work the problem through a screencast.

How Do You Make a Screencast?

In order to capture the activity on a computer screen, special software is often required, but new Web 2.0 technologies allow screencast to be recorded over the Web. Once software is installed or the Web 2.0 site is accessed, creating a screencast is as easy as selecting the “record” button and speaking in a microphone connected to the computer. Once users select “record,” all the actions taking place on the screen are captured and the audio is synced with these actions.

After a recording session is over, many software applications allow users to edit the resulting video. In addition, some screencasting software permits additional graphics and text to be added during the editing phase. For example, closed captioning could be added to the screencast, which would help with accessibility. Once in the production phase, screencast can usually be saved in a variety of formats (e.g., flv, mpg or mp4).

How Do You Watch a Screencast?

Viewing a screencast is easy. The only requirement is that the appropriate viewer should be installed on a computer to watch the format in question. Because most screencasts are viewed on the Web, basic media players and a Web browser are all that is needed. Windows Media Player, Flash and QuickTime are probably the most popular formats for screencasts. While videos can be streamed over the Web, users can also download videos and watch them at their convenience. For example, users could view a downloaded video on a portable device such as a mobile phone or iTouch.

Example of a Screencasting Technology

There are many free software tools that allow users to create screencasts. Screenr is an example of a Web 2.0 technology that facilitates the screen capture without the need for software, and Jing is an example of a free software that is downloaded to a local machine.

For this assignment, I chose to use Jing to produce a video. Jing is a free software download that is offered by TechSmith, which also owns Camtasia (a more robust screen capture software that cost money). Jing allows users to take a picture of the computer screen, record video of the screen and instantly share the captured content. Once Jing is downloaded and installed a small, transparent icon stays on the perimeter of the screen.

In order to make a capture, users simply select the icon, draw the size of the capture area and select “Capture an Image” or “Capture a Video.” If video is chosen, then users can speak into a microphone connected to the computer while the capture is taking place. The free version of Jing captures video in a flash format (i.e., swf), but for $15 a year users can upgrade to pro, which allows users to record videos in an mp4 format.

Jing can be shared in a variety of ways. When users download Jing, they are automatically given free space on TechSmith’s server, and videos can be stored on this server, which is called screencast.com (this site gives users 2 GB of free storage space). Videos can be uploaded to screencast.com and this link can be sent to friends. Videos can be saved as a file or uploaded to a FTP server to be put on a Website. Jing videos can also be sent to Twitter. Below is a video that I made with Jing on a Web 2.0 technology called Planning Center Online:

Does Screencasting Have Important Implications?

One major implication of screencasting is that students can watch a lesson anytime, anywhere. In addition, students have complete control of the lesson, which means they can repeat material or skip ahead as needed. Teachers have the ability to craft concise and clear lessons because each screencast can be edited. Students can also use screencasting in a variety of ways, from creating an electronic portfolio to offering feedback on assignments.

Disadvantages of Screencasting?

Effective screencasts do require an eye for production and editing does take time. In addition, not all students learn well from video, which stems from their preferred learning style. Perhaps the biggest issue with screencasting is that it is not interactive.

Advantages of Screencasting?

Screencasting offers a great deal of accessibility to students with aural impairments and students that have a hard time traveling. In addition, students that miss class or a lesson could view a lesson via a screencast. Screencast also provide a lesson that is stable and consistent. This might be an important feature for those that routinely train workers on similar computer-based tasks. Screencasts are easy to make, and this tool offers teachers another way to communicate content to students.

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In the short span of around 100 years, motion picture technology has moved from it’s infancy with silent films all the way to streaming high definition videos on mobile devices. The evolution of motion pictures has seen a dramatic turn in the last decade with the advent of Web-based video. The following discussion will focus on understanding the historical development of motion pictures in education, the current setting of videos and learning, and future possibilities within education.

Historical Development of Motion Pictures in Education

Around 1910, the Rochester, New York school system became the first educational organization to use educational video. A few years later, in the late 1920s, sound was introduced in motion pictures, which greatly expanded the technological capabilities of video. The addition of sound with video sparked a great deal of interests as researchers sought to study these dual processes of learning (e.g. dual coding theory).

This evolution continued over the next several decades. Schools primarily employed the film reel and projector technology from the beginning (i.e., 1910) until the 1950s. This technology was soon replaced by videotapes in the 1960s. The next step of development came in the 1980s and 1990s with the advent of several videodisc formats.

While this progress greatly improved motion pictures, the exponential growth in the late 20th century and early 21st century has become an issue. Educational organization have a limited amount of funds. Therefore, staying relevant and up-to-date has become increasingly hard as improvements come at a more rapid pace. For this reason, schools are now forced to move beyond mere considerations of technological superiority to also consider the shelf life of a new video format.

Current Setting of Videos and Learning

Web 2.0 videos are the most recent and fastest growing advent in the evolution of video. The author of the article, Chareen Snelson, discussed several facets of this new technology by focusing on one of the most popular providers of Web-based videos, YouTube. YouTube allows users to view videos through Web browsers such as Firefox or Internet Explorer. Users may upload videos in a variety of formats, but once on YouTube’s site, the videos are converted to Flash video. The advantage of Flash is that it is ubiquitous, free and cross platform (e.g., Windows and MacIntosh).

Creating and editing videos has become easy, affordable and accessible. Most camcorders and a growing number of mobile devices (e.g., smartphones) can be synced with a computer, and users can edit videos on their computer and upload the videos to the Web. Several of the recently developed smartphones can actually edit and upload the video within the phone itself (e.g., iPhone 4). Another option to capture video is a Webcam, which is connected directly to a computer. In addition, Adobe Premiere Express (http://www.adobe.com/products/premiereexpress) is a Web 2.0 technology that represents a new Web-based option in video editing.

Once individuals become a member of YouTube, they can create a customized Web page with a playlist, which is called a YouTube channel. The channel and playlist offers users the ability to share a collection of videos with others. Users can share videos by employing the HTML embed code, distributing the hyperlink or using one of the share options found on YouTube. Members are also able to track statistics on various aspects of uploaded videos (e.g., number of views).

After a video is uploaded and converted to Flash, three functions are automatically generated for that video: 1) Web page, 2) HTML embed code, and 3) a player. Basic changes can be made to videos after they are uploaded. For example, the video tags, description and title can be altered with the Info & Settings tool, and background audio files can be added with the Audio Swap tool.

Some Web-based video sites do allow users to download videos. However, YouTube does not allow videos to be downloaded, and this policiy is outlined in their terms of use. However, a number of third party applications give users the ability to capture and download online videos, including YouTube (e.g., Zamzar). If legality is in question, then users can look to The Center for Social Media (http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org) for clarification.

In the classroom, videos can be used to show historical events, depict the real world, visualize concepts, motivate learners or take virtual field trips. A limited amount of research has been conducted on using YouTube in the classroom, but studies about multimedia learning can be considered. Video is a powerful learning tool because it can portray processes, events and ideas.

Learners control the video (e.g., pace or position) on YouTube in an interactive manner. Additional videos are also available to YouTube users through branched and basic interactivity. Branched interactivity links similar videos so that users have the ability to skip from one video to the next and expand learning. Basic interactivity places a series of videos in specific sequence to help learners progress through material. Another facet of interactivity is the ability of respondents to give comments through posts or videoposts.

Precautions and Barriers

As teachers begin to embrace Web-based videos, a number of concerns should be considered. YouTube contains some videos that are inappopriate for educational use, but these videos are usually quickly identified and removed from their site. Another concern is the quality of videos on YouTube. There are a number of instructional videos that contain wonderful substance, but teachers should filter out bad videos and point students to the best media. In some cases, the quality of the videos is so poor that it might interfere with or prevent learning from taking place. Fortunately, some websites can actually help to “fix” poor quality videos, such as FixMyMovie (http://www.fixmymovie.com).

Suggestions for Teachers

Technical support, teacher training and adequate equipment are a vital compenent to using online videos. Technical support should be readily available to help troubleshoot any issues that arise. Professional development is necessary to prepare teachers to create, upload and use videos in the context of a class. Both of these efforts are undermined if adequate equipment is not in place. Ecucational organizations must develop a strong insfrastructure to handle the demands of uploading, streaming and downloading videos. Similarly, students and teachers must have computers and equipment that facilitate the use of videos.

Teachers can take preventative measures to ensure high quality videos. Educators should limit text and use large fonts to help viewers clearly see content. When performing a screen capture, zooming in on text can often help learners see the content more clearly. Finally, creators of video should employ captions and annotations to help meet the needs of all learners.

Future Possibilities Within Education

A huge repository of videos already exists on the Web. Fair use laws need to be clarified in coming years so that the public understands what is acceptable. This situation is compounded by the fact that technology is changing so quickly.

In the near future, users may be able to complete all video related needs through the Web. This technology already exists, but editing is still primarily done on laptops and desktops. As bandwidth continues to expand and new Web 2.0 technologies are created, the Internet will probably become a free, easy and preferred method to edit videos. In fact, a growing number of these videos will probably be filmed, edited and uploaded on a mobile device.

If educational funding continues to be slashed, then institutions will have to turn to online learning to help fill the gap. Whether or not this happens, videos will probably assume a more influential role in e-learning over the next few years. As teachers learn video technology, they will begin posting more videos. As technology continues to develop, viewing videos will become even more accessible and portable. Video is meaningful part of society and might assume a similar position in education.

Snelson, C. (2010). Web-based video for e-Learning: Tapping into the YouTube ™ Phenomenon. In Yang, H. H., & Yuen, S. C. (Eds.), Collective intelligence and e-Learning 2.0: Implications of Web-based communities and networking (pp. 147-166). Hershey, Pennsylvania: Information Science Reference.

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