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Archive for the ‘File Sharing’ Category

The pedagogical model termed “flipped classrooms” refers to a scenario where homework and lectures are reversed. Typically, students come to class to hear lectures and then go home and complete the application of that lecture (e.g., homework).  In flipped classrooms, students watch a short video before coming to class, and when students come to class, they apply the lessons taught in the short video. This approach allows instructors to use time in class to build skills and for collaboration.

Educators are adopting this model anytime students watch or listen to lectures before coming to class and then do workshops in class. In one approach, teachers may actually set up a series of videos with intermittent quizzes to test knowledge acquisition. A series of videos may help to ensure that students have a certain level of knowledge before coming to class. While potentially helpful in all classes, this approach seems to have a great deal of potential for career and technical classes (CTE).

Career and technical instructors have struggled with e-learning because CTE classes demand that students spend time in workshops and laboratories to ensure they are applying theoretical knowledge. A hybrid approach seems to work well in CTE classes. Further, the flipped classroom is a technique that may help students be efficient and teachers be more effective.

In the traditional classroom, students often focus on transcribing lectures rather than understanding what is being said. A pre-class video format allows students to view the lecture material as many times as they need in order understand the material. Students that need extra time to understand material (i.e., accessibility issues) may find this approach very helpful. In addition, teachers may be able to detect errors more efficiently in this model because more class time is spent on the application of material. Collaboration and informal learning may also be facilitated in flipped classrooms.

The flipped model does require more preparatory work for both the teacher and student. Teachers must be very organized and sequential in this approach. Students must spend time viewing and reflecting on the videos before class. However, students may get frustrated if their technology equipment is slow or incapable of loading the videos (e.g., dial-up internet).

Moving the videos used in flipped classrooms to mobile devices makes this model even more attractive. Students could access lectures anytime, anywhere and just in time for training. Business and industry may actually begin to think about adopting this model for training incumbent workers. Ultimately, this model places more responsibility on students to learn material before class and affords them the opportunity to reflect on and apply this information on their own. Flipped classrooms allow students to master material rather than just being exposed to knowledge.

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010a, January). 7 things you should know about flipped classrooms. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf

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The following list was primarily derived from EDUCAUSE.  They produce a monthly publication that seeks to identify, compile, and review new technologies that show promise in education.  Below, I describe the emerging technologies that began to gain prominence in 2010.

  • Next-Generation Presentation Tools.  Electronic presentations are evident at all levels of the educational arena, and new presentation tools are emerging that give teachers the ability to customize presentations in a way that more closely resembles new methods of learning and teaching.  Many of these tools use nonlinear sequencing or branching, which allows a teacher to take students’ questions and follow them through to finality without disturbing the sequence of the overall presentation.  Some of these new tools promote collaboration between authors.  These alternative presentation applications could cause educators to revisit the nature of information sharing and presentation (EDUCAUSE, 2010a).
  • Backchannel Communication.  The term backchannel communication refers to a secondary electronic conversation that occurs simultaneous to a lecture, learning activity, or conference session.  This form of communication takes place informally through applications such as Twitter or chat tools, but backchannel communication is formally being cast into the foreground by some educators.  These pioneers encourage students to interact with one another during activities or lectures; this communication occurs without disrupting the speaker (EDUCAUSE, 2010b).
  • E-Readers.  These electronic tools are high-resolution, low-power, and portable.  E-readers are designed to display written material in a digital format, such as newspapers or books.  Some of these devices allow users to access other electronic material (e.g., websites or blogs).  E-readers have the greatest potential to alter traditional approaches to the acquisition of content (i.e., buying a textbook).  These devices could also transform classroom interaction because students would have more real-time access to information through the Internet (EDUCAUSE, 2010c).
  • Analytics.  Analytics applications statistically evaluate data in order to discern patterns.  These tools allow organizations to make informed decisions and recommendations.  Schools can use this technology in order to inform financial decisions, tweak course offerings, and alter recruiting practices.  Analytics can also help colleges align resources with needs.  In addition, these tools could be used in LMS to provide meaningful data (EDUCAUSE, 2010d).
  • Mobile Apps for Learning.  Any educational interaction that takes place via mobile technology can be referred to as mobile learning (m-learning).  A variety of devices are available for m-learning, ranging from mobile phones to the iPad.  However, the most popular medium for m-learning is currently cell phones.  Mobile software applications allow students and teachers to access course content and a number of resources from any location that has the Internet; a large portion of this data can also be uploaded onto a mobile device, which eliminates the need for Internet access (EDUCAUSE, 2010e).
  • Open Educational Resources.  Resources that are available to the public at little or no cost are termed as open educational resources (OER).  A plethora of free educational material can be found on the Internet, including simulations, syllabi, tests, and textbooks.  OER provides access to instructional resources to a much larger group of learners.  Instructors can also choose components from OER to enhance their courses.  Extremists foresee a day when learners will construct their own courses from OER (EDUCAUSE, 2010f).
  • LMS Alternatives.  LMS currently serve as the primary platform for online education by providing a set of tools to deliver content and manage courses.  Emerging Web 2.0 applications now offer a host of applications that rival, if not surpass, the educational tools offered through LMS.  The new applications include social networking sites, document sharing tools, cloud-based media options, timeline tools, and social bookmarking sites.  Many educators are adopting these alternative tools because they teach students real-world skills that will be used in the workplace.  In this scenario, the LMS simply becomes a hub from which other applications can be accessed.  The new Web 2.0 tools also encourage active learning, effective collaboration, and student engagement (EDUCAUSE, 2010g).
  • Online Team-Based Learning.  Online team-based learning takes place when learners work in small groups to accomplish learning outcomes.  This approach shows a great deal of promise in online courses because the forum promotes social interaction in an environment that often lacks this crucial element.  This method often emphasizes the learning process rather than the final outcome, especially as it relates to assessment (EDUCAUSE, 2010h).
  • Online Media Editing.  Anyone with a suitable computer and Internet access can edit graphics, audio, and video using cloud-based media editing tools.  These Web 2.0  applications offer several advantages, including the flexibility to work on any machine or platform; in addition, these tools are usually free or inexpensive.  Open access to these online editing applications helps to promote equal opportunity for all learners to use the same technology tools.  These applications are also user-friendly, so educators can devise a number of ways to incorporate new kinds of activites in almost all disciplines (EDUCAUSE, 2010i).
  • The HyFlex Course Model.  The HyFlex course design model offers the elements of a hybrid class (i.e., a combination of online and traditional) in a flexible manner that allows students the option of participating online, attending class, or choosing both.  In this model, teachers offer course material in a traditional and online format, while students choose their learning preference for each meeting.  However, this model is not self-paced.  Ultimately, the point of the HyFlex approach is to eliminate the barrier between the physical and virtual classroom.  This model promotes a more customized learning environment (EDUCAUSE, 2010j).
  • Android.  Android is an open-source operating system created for use in mobile phones, tablet computers, e-readers, and similar mobile devices.  Android is owned by Google and integrates well with Google applications such as Google Calendar and Gmail.  In addition, Android allows smart phone users to seamlessly access social networking sites.  A large number of free applications exist for the Android.  Android and similar mobile operating systems make mobile learning and teaching practical.  At this point, these tools promote information gathering (e.g., listening to a lecture) better than information creation (e.g., writing a paper).  Interconnectivity between smart phones, the Internet, and personal computers allows individuals to work with others and easily share content (EDUCAUSE, 2010k).

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010a, January). 7 things you should know about next-generation presentation tools. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7056.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010b, February). 7 things you should know about backchannel communication. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7057.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010c, March). 7 things you should know about e-readers. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7058.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010d, April). 7 things you should know about analytics. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7059.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010e, May). 7 things you should know about mobile apps for learning. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7060.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010f, June). 7 things you should know about open educational resources. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7061.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010g, July). 7 things you should know about LMS alternatives. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7062.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010h, August). 7 things you should know about online team-based learning. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7063.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010i, October). 7 things you should know about online media editing. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7065.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010j, November). 7 things you should know about the HyFlex course model. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7066.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2010k, December). 7 things you should know about Android. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7067.pdf

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The following list was primarily derived from EDUCAUSE.  They produce a monthly publication that seeks to identify, compile, and review new technologies that show promise in education.  Below, I describe the emerging technologies that began to gain prominence in 2009.

  • Alternate reality games (ARGs).  This application intertwines real objects with puzzles and hints that are virtually hidden anywhere (e.g., stores, movies, Websites, or printed materials).  The ARGs are the devices used to gather clues.  These games facilitate creative problem solving using real-world scenarios and materials (EDUCAUSE, 2009a).
  • QR Codes.  These codes are bar codes that are two-dimensional.  QR codes feature both alphanumeric characters and a URL that links consumers directly to a Website that describes or gives information about a product.  Individuals could scan a QR code on a product with their mobile phone and gather a great deal of information on that product quickly (EDUCAUSE, 2009b).
  • Location Aware Applications.  Applications using location-aware technology can provide online content to individuals based on physical location.  These applications can also send an individual’s location to a third party, such as a friend or teacher.  Location-based information can enhance learning.  Scientific information, historical narratives, and interactive geographic content are examples of how educaotrs can use this tool (EDUCAUSE, 2009c).
  • Live question tool.  This Web-based application allows participants in a presentation to post questions for the lecturer.  As participants post questions, fellow participants can share remarks and vote on what questions they would like to see addressed.  This technology gives lecturers constructive feedback upon which they may choose to alter their presentation (EDUCAUSE, 2009d).
  • Personal Learning Environment.  A personal learning environment (PLE) is a scenario in which individuals direct their own learning through personalized tools, services, and communities.  A PLE is best understood in contrast to an LMS.  A PLE is “learner-centric,” while a LMS is “course-centric.” However, PLE and LMS are not necessarily exclusive of one another because a learner can choose to include several elements of a LMS in his or her PLE.  The notion of a PLE alters the role of resources and stems from the idea that information is ubiquitous.  In a PLE, teachers place the emphasis on access to and assessment of information in addition to metacognition (EDUCAUSE, 2009e).
  • VoiceThread.  VoiceThread allows individuals to aggregate media into one Web site, including media contributions from guests and users.  Initially, a creator places an artifact (e.g., graphic) on the site.  The ensuing discussion about this artifact allows users to comment on the artifact using a variety of media (e.g, video, audio, or text).  Then they can view comments in an interactive manner.  Voicethread provides teachers and students with an avenue for presenting visual media in an interactive manner (EDUCAUSE, 2009f).
  • Microblogging.  Microblogging is a term referring to a small quantity of digital content users place on the Internet, such as links, short videos, pictures, text, or other media.  Twitter is probably the most popular microblogging site currently used.  In education, students often use microblogging for backchannel communication during a live class; teachers can also send notifications and reminders to students using this application.   (EDUCAUSE, 2009g).
  • Telepresence.  This complex application of video technologies allows geographically separated participants to feel as if everyone involved in the presentation were in the same location.  High-definition (HD) cameras send signals to HD displays that are life size, and high-fidelity acoustics localize the sound to each image in order to simulate the effect of each participant’s voice emanating from that participant’s respective display (EDUCAUSE, 2009h).
  • Collaborative annotation.  This tool broadens the notion of social bookmarking by permitting participants to move beyond merely sharing bookmarks by allowing each member to share annotations of a web page.  Collaborative annotations allow users to add notes that explain their ideas on a Web resource or highlight specific areas on the Web page (EDUCAUSE, 2009i).
  • Google Wave.  In Google Wave, a user creates an online space termed as a “wave.” The wave is simply a running document that is conversational, and contributors can offer isolated messages within a wave, which are called “blips.” Google wave can house an entire conversation in one location.  E-mail has been in existence for 40 years and remains virtually unchanged, so this web-based application attempts to redefine electronic communication.  Google Wave seems well-suited for PLE because it offers a single location for collecting data from a variety of sources and allows for an array of formats (EDUCAUSE, 2009j).

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009a, January). 7 things you should know about alternative reality games. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7045.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009b, February). 7 things you should know about QR codes. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7046.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009c, March). 7 things you should know about location aware applications. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7047.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009d, April). 7 things you should know about live question tool. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7048.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009e, May). 7 things you should know about personal learning environment. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7049.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009f, June). 7 things you should know about VoiceThread. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7050.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009g, July). 7 things you should know about microblogging. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7051.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009h, September). 7 things you should know about telepresence. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7053.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009i, October). 7 things you should know about collaborative annotation. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7054.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2009j, November). 7 things you should know about Google Wave. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7055.pdf

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The following list was primarily derived from EDUCAUSE.  They produce a monthly publication that seeks to identify, compile, and review new technologies that show promise in education.  Below, I describe the emerging technologies that began to gain prominence in 2008.

  • Lulu.  Lulu provides tools to publish, print, and design original content.  Educators and students have the ability to publish content (e.g., reports, books, or posters) with nominal expense (EDUCAUSE, 2008a).
  • Flickr.  Anyone can upload, view, mark, or tag pictures on this photo-sharing website.  Flickr embodies many elements of Web 2.0 applications and relies on user content to promote community among consumers.  Users have the ability to provide a setting for developing relationships or shared events, and in order to help enhance relationships, groups can be formed (EDUCAUSE, 2008b).
  • Google apps.  This online suite of file storage and web-based programs operates within a web browser.  In Google Apps, individuals can share content by granting someone permission to view that content.  The ability to easily share content promotes peer review of material and collaboration.  The programs featured on Google Apps include productivity tools (e.g., word processor or spreadsheet), communication tools, (e.g., calendar or Google Talk) and web development tools (EDUCAUSE, 2008c).
  • Ning.  This online social networking application allows consumers to generate their own network or take part in another individual’s network.  Each creator is given the opportunity to completely personalize the functionality and appearance of the SNS.  This technology is similar to Facebook with the exception that users can create their own closed network.  Ning provides a neutral setting where teachers can harness the power of social networks, such as the promotion of a strong sense of community among a cohort of students (EDUCAUSE, 2008d).
  • Multi-touch interfaces.  These input devices distinguish various touches on the surface of the screen such as pinches, rotations, swipes, and other actions that facilitate instantaneous interface with digital content.  Multi-touch interfaces also allow several users to simultaneously collaborate with digital content (EDUCAUSE, 2008e).
  • Second Life.  Second Life is a modern day virtual world hosting over 13 million “residents,” a flourishing economy and a great deal of virtual land.  Consumers can create or alter virtual space with ease, and this scenario has encouraged experiments in creating space designs.  For example, Second Life often hosts virtual field trips or serves as a platform to display student media.  There are a number of social dynamics that promote teamwork and self-directed learning (EDUCAUSE, 2008f).
  • Wii.  This gaming console allows participants to interact with the game applications through physical gestures and movement.  Academic researchers have employed this technology to create applications such as an interactive whiteboard or collaborative choreography tools.  Researchers can use Wii and similar gaming consoles to test how active learning exercises can improve the performance of students with various learning styles.  Wii can stimulate physical activity (EDUCAUSE, 2008g).
  • Geolocation.  This application links digital content with a physical location.  Geolocation is also called geotagging.  A common use of geolocation is the association between a picture and its geographic location.  Geolocation can help to coordinate resources and information, which can add a new layer of understanding to research (EDUCAUSE, 2008h).
  • Zotero.  This online research tool offers automated bibliographic resources to users.  Zotero runs in the browser, so the citation process becomes seemless and easy.  All the bibliographic information of a Web page is stored in the consumer’s library of sources (EDUCAUSE, 2008i).
  • Ustream.  Users of Ustream can broadcast a personalized channel on this interactive Web streaming platform.  Consumers can promote their own shows, have conversations and host events on this platform.  Educators can employ the free streaming video and initiate a variety of authentic assessments using this tool (EDUCAUSE, 2008j).
  • Flip camcorders.  Flip video camcorders allow consumers to shoot, capture, and produce video content with this petite, economical, and user-friendly device.  For faculty members, these devices present new opportunities for authentic assessment and foster visual learning.  Because this process is user-friendly and inexpensive, teachers and students might find it palatable to produce video content that can enhance learning (EDUCAUSE, 2008k).
  • Lecture capture.  This technology enables teachers to record classroom activities and lectures and then make them accessible for students in a digital format.  Educators can limit lecture capture to audio, but video recordings that feature the lecturer, an electronic whiteboard, or screen capture are gaining in popularity.  Lecture capture further expands on screencasting (EDUCAUSE, 2008l).

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008a, January). 7 things you should know about Lulu. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7033.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008b, February). 7 things you should know about Flickr. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7034.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008c, March). 7 things you should know about Google Apps. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7035.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008d, April). 7 things you should know about Ning. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7036.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008e, May). 7 things you should know about Multi-touch interfaces. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7037.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008f, June). 7 things you should know about Second Life. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7038.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008g, July). 7 things you should know about Wii. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7039.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008h, August). 7 things you should know about Geolocation. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7040.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008i, September). 7 things you should know about Zotero. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7041.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008j, October). 7 things you should know about Ustream. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7042.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008k, November). 7 things you should know about Flip Camcorders. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7043.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2008l, December). 7 things you should know about lecture capture. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7044.pdf

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EDUCAUSE produces a monthly publication that seeks to identify, compile, and review new technologies that show promise in education.  I describe the emerging technologies showing the most potential for education below in chronological order by year; the year 2005 through the present is covered in successive blogs.  The years do not necessarily represent the year of creation but of emergence.

  • Social Bookmarking.  Bookmarking occurs when a user saves the URL address of a Web site to a local computer.  Social bookmarking takes place when a user saves a bookmark to a public Web site and “tags” each location with keywords.  The ability to tag information resources with keywords and access these bookmarks through the Internet has the potential to alter how individuals find and store information.  Knowing where information is found may become less important than knowing how to retrieve information using a collaborative framework designed by colleagues (EDUCAUSE, 2005a).
  • Clickers.  Class size and human dynamics have traditionally restricted student engagement and feedback (e.g., a limited number of students dominate the interaction).  Clickers help to more efficiently facilitate engagement and interaction, which can be modified to any discipline and most teaching environments (e.g., small groups or partners).  A clicker is a small device that uses radio frequencies to communicate with a centralized computer in a classroom setting, such as the teacher’s or presenter’s computer (EDUCAUSE, 2005).
  • Podcasting/vodcasting.  Podcasting describes any hardware and software amalgamation that automatically allows audio files to download to an MP3 (i.e., Motion Photographic Experts Group Audio Layer 3) player.  This ability allows users to listen to or watch digital media content at their convenience.  Educators can use Podcasting as an asynchrounous learning tool that students can use anywhere, anytime.  If users add a video to a Podcast, then it becomes a Vodcast (EDUCAUSE, 2005c).
  • Wikis.  Wikis are powerful tools to promote collaboration.  The term “wikis” refers to Web pages that an individual can view and alter through Internet access and a Web browser.  This technology supports group collaboration and asychrounous communication (EDUCAUSE, 2005d).
  • Video blogging.  Similar to a blog, a video blog (vlog) employs video instead of text or audio.  Obviously, educators can use this technology to record lectures or special announcements.  In some instances, video blogs are used as an outlet for self expression or opinions (EDUCAUSE, 2005e).
  • Blogs.  A blog is simply an online journal, and viewers of a blog can respond.  The  technology is similar to e-mail.  Students usually employ blogs to complete assignments and for self expression.  Educators use blogs to support teaching and learning, promote dialogue, and express ideas or opinions (EDUCAUSE, 2005f).
  • Augmented reality.  Augmented Reality focuses on real space or objects and uses contextual data to expand students’ knowledge of that space or object.  It differs from virtual reality in that it does not generate a simulated reality (EDUCAUSE, 2005g).
  • Instant Messaging.  Instant Messaging (IM) allows for real-time communication through mobile computing devices or personal computers using the Internet.  IM now supports communication in the form of text, audio, video, images, and other attachments.  While IM has been around since the late 1990s, the functionality of IM is now ubiquitous with the advent of many new applications and mobility.  Learners using IM appear to feel connected with the faculty and peers in a way that is difficult using other multimedia.  Higher education has the opportunity to embrace this new medium of communication that requires little cost (EDUCAUSE, 2005h).
  • Collaborative Editing.  Collaborative editing allows several individuals to edit a document simultaneously.  In other words, this tool allows a user to edit a file or observe someone else editing the file in real time.  This technology is similar to instant messaging in that changes are seen instantly, and it resembles a wiki in that all participants can delete, change, or add content.  Collaborative editing provides a good platform for supporting groupwork in a distance learning environment; students can work together despite being separated by time and space (EDUCAUSE, 2005i).

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005a, May) 7 things you should know about social bookmarking. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7001.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005b, May) 7 things you should know about clickers. Retrieved from  http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7002.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005c, June) 7 things you should know about podcasting. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7003.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005d, July). 7 things you should know about wikis. Retrieved from  http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7004.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005e, August). 7 things you should know about videoblogging. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7005.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005f, September). 7 things you should know about blogs. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7006.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005g, October). 7 things you should know about augmented reality. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7007.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005h, November) 7 things you should know about instant messaging. Retrieved from  http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7008.pdf

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2005i, December) 7 things you should know about collaborative editing. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7009.pdf

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This table of contents chronicles the reflections on various projects and assignments of IT 860, Emerging Technology in Instructional Technology.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.    Introduction to Blogfolio

II.  Reflection on Assignments

III. Reflection on Readings

IV.  Overall Reflection on IT 860

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Web 2.0 is now a technological juggernaut, and these technologies are revolutionizing the way people communicate, collaborate and accomplish basic tasks. The focus of IT 860, Emerging Technologies in Instructional Technology, was to explore the latest and greatest Web 2.0 tools that show promise in education. Dr. Yuen exposed each student to the theoretical basis for each Web 2.0 tool through his book, “Collective Intelligence and E-Learning 2.0: Implications of Web-Based Communities and Networking.” In addition, students were required to use each Web 2.0 tool that was discussed in order to gain knowledge through experiential learning.

The first generation of the Web was developed primarily by experts and aimed at merely sharing knowledge. Web 2.0 differs in that these tools are created and developed by a variety of users with the intent of collaboration and interactivity. This focus on collaboration and interactivity has facilitated a sweeping embrace of social media. For example, if Facebook was a country, then it would be the third largest in the world behind China and India.

The Web 2.0 applications covered in IT 860 can be divided into three categories: tools that connect people, tools that share knowledge and tools that connect people and share knowledge in virtual environments. A large portion of the readings focused on issues involved with connecting people, while the bulk of the Web 2.0 tools that were covered focused on the sharing of knowledge. It should be noted that while I discuss these ideas separately, the whole point of Web 2.0 is to provide environments that both connect people and share knowledge.

Tools that Connect People

The premise of collective intelligence is founded on the power of tools that connect people. A series of readings helped to shed light on the philosophical basis for the use of these connecting Web 2.0 technologies in education. A new paradigm in learning theories was introduced in 2004 with the birth of connectivism, which stems from the traditions of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Our first reading was on connectivism and described the power of collective intelligence. Connectivists hold that learning takes place as networks of individuals share knowledge, and one powerful Web 2.0 tool covered that represents the power of human connection is Twitter.  For example, Twitter boasts 50 million Tweets per day; that is a lot of connecting!

As might be expected, this level of connectivity requires a good organizational infrastructure and can lead to a great number of legal concerns in education. Therefore, our second reading addressed the obstacles to implementing Web 2.0 in educational institutions. Further, educators need to consider the human and social issues involved with the implementation of Web 2.0 in the classroom, which was our third reading.

Synchronous Online Learning Environments (SOLE) represent an excellent example of synchronous online learning that is offered in an ethical and effective way. In SOLE, students have a chance to interact with peers and the teacher in a similar way to a traditional classroom, and multiple channels of media simultaneously connecting with learners enhance this interaction.

Tools that Share Knowledge

The power of Web 2.0 to share knowledge is robust; in fact, the number of tools is overwhelming. Dr. Yuen did an excellent job of weeding through the volumes of applications available and introducing students to the best of these tools. A reading that described the potential of Web-based video (e.g., YouTube) began this quest.

Following this reading, students dove into a myriad of Web 2.0 tools aimed at sharing knowledge. Social bookmarking (Diigo) is a Web 2.0 technology that allows users to bookmark Web sites and place tags on those bookmarks using keywords. Social publishing sites (Scribd) allow users to share and find written documents on the Internet or mobile devices, such as Word, PowerPoint or PDF. Screencasting (Jing or ScreenToaser) occurs when individuals capture a video of what happens on a computer screen over a span of time, and audio (e.g., narrative) is usually part of a screencast as well. File Sharing (Drop.io) is a powerful trend in Web 2.0 that facilitates collaboration, and users can create a “drop” by uploading an image, audio, video, document or other digital content. VoiceThread is a media aggregator that permits users to upload media to a website, and this tool also facilitates collaboration and feedback on such media.

Connecting and Sharing in Virtual Worlds

Virtual worlds find their ancestry in video games. Therefore, our first reading on virtual worlds actually focused on a model of Game-Based Learning (VISOLE). Learning through games is gaining more attention from several educators. Perhaps an even more promising environment for learning is seen in virtual worlds. Our final reading focused on taking a Pedagogical Odyssey in Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds (The SECOND LIFE Model). As a point of application, each student had an opportunity to make a presentation at a conference in Second Life.

Summative Thoughts

All of these tools described above promoted the sharing of knowledge. However, it would be misleading if I failed to highlight the intrinsic ability of each of these tools to also connect learners. A symbiotic relationship exists between connecting people and sharing knowledge in Web 2.0.

Dr. Yuen provided an incredible environment for learning these emerging tools. In fact, he taught the class through a platform (Mixxt) that closely resembled a social networking site (SNS) rather than through learning management software (LMS). Naturally, this approach led to more connectivity among students and facilitated the sharing of knowledge among the group.

This class has been an incredible journey of learning. I now feel confident to use Web 2.0 tools and design instruction around them appropriately.

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